Question: "What is premillennialism?"
Answer: Premillennialism is the view that Christ's second coming will occur prior to His millennial kingdom, and that the millennial kingdom is a literal 1000-year reign of Christ on earth. In order to understand and interpret the passages in Scripture that deal with end-times events, there are two things that must be clearly understood: a proper method of interpreting Scripture and the distinction between Israel (the Jews) and the church (the body of all believers in Jesus Christ).
First, a proper method of interpreting Scripture requires that Scripture be interpreted in a way that is consistent with its context. This means that a passage must be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the audience to which it is written, those it is written about, whom it is written by, and so on. It is critical to know the author, intended audience, and historical background of each passage one interprets. The historical and cultural setting will often reveal the correct meaning of a passage. It is also important to remember that Scripture interprets Scripture. That is, often a passage will cover a topic or subject that is also addressed elsewhere in the Bible. It is important to interpret all of these passages consistently with one another.
Finally, and most importantly, passages must always be taken in their normal, regular, plain, literal meaning unless the context of the passage indicates that it is figurative in nature. A literal interpretation does not eliminate the possibility of figures of speech being used. Rather, it encourages the interpreter to not read figurative language into the meaning of a passage unless it is appropriate for that context. It is crucial to never seek a "deeper, more spiritual" meaning than is presented. Spiritualizing a passage is dangerous because it moves the basis for accurate interpretation from Scripture to the mind of the reader. Then, there can be no objective standard of interpretation; instead, Scripture becomes subject to each person's own impression of what it means. Second Peter 1:20-21 reminds us that "no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit."
Applying these principles of biblical interpretation, it must be seen that Israel (Abraham's physical descendants) and the church (all New Testament believers) are two distinct groups. It is crucial to recognize that Israel and the church are distinct because, if this is misunderstood, Scripture will be misinterpreted. Especially prone to misinterpretation are passages that deal with promises made to Israel (both fulfilled and unfulfilled). Such promises should not be applied to the church. Remember, the context of the passage will determine to whom it is addressed and will point to the most correct interpretation.
With those concepts in mind, we can look at various passages of Scripture that produce the premillennial view. Genesis 12:1-3: "The LORD had said to Abram, "Leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you.""
God promises Abraham three things here: Abraham would have many descendants, this nation would own and occupy a land, and a universal blessing will come to all mankind out of Abraham's line (the Jews). In Genesis 15:9-17, God ratifies His covenant with Abraham. By the way this is done, God places sole responsibility for the covenant upon Himself. That is, there was nothing Abraham could do or fail to do that would void the covenant God made. Also in this passage, the boundaries are set for the land that the Jews will eventually occupy. For a detailed list of the boundaries, see Deuteronomy 34. Other passages that deal with the promise of land are Deuteronomy 30:3-5 and Ezekiel 20:42-44.
In 2 Samuel 7:10–17, we see the promise made by God to King David. God makes some special promises concerning one of David's sons: God will establish his kingdom (verse 12), be his father (verse 14), and never remove His love from him (verse 15). In addition, God says this son “will build a house for my Name” (verse 13). These promises were fulfilled in Solomon. However, part of God’s promise was that David’s son’s throne would be established “forever” (verse 13). This part of the prophecy could not refer to Solomon, because Solomon died and did not retain the throne forever. Thus, we have a prophecy with a dual fulfillment: it was fulfilled partially in Solomon and fully in Jesus Christ, also called the Son of David (Matthew 1:1). Solomon did, in some ways, prefigure Christ in his kingship, wisdom, and peaceful reign. Of course, Jesus is greater than Solomon in every respect (Matthew 12:42). So, 2 Samuel 7 makes reference to Solomon’s temporary rule and to Christ’s rule during the millennium and forever. King Solomon could not be the ultimate fulfillment of the promise made to David; it is a covenant that has yet to be fully realized.
With all this in mind, examine what is recorded in Revelation 20:1–7. The thousand years repeatedly mentioned in this passage corresponds to Christ’s literal 1000-year reign on the earth. Premillennialism sees this passage as describing the future fulfillment of the promise that Christ would be seated on David’s throne. God made unconditional covenants with both Abraham and David. Neither of these covenants has been fully or permanently fulfilled. A literal, physical rule of Christ is the only way the covenants can be fulfilled as God promised they would.
Applying a literal method of interpretation to Scripture results in the pieces of the puzzle coming together. All of the Old Testament prophecies of Jesus' first coming were fulfilled literally. Therefore, we should expect the prophecies regarding His second coming to be fulfilled literally as well. Premillennialism is the only system that agrees with a literal interpretation of God's covenants and end-times prophecy.